10 World Greatest Jazz Festivals

Montréal Jazz Festival

The Montreal Jazz Festival began in 1980; it's since grown to be the most important event of the sort (2004 Guinness World Record). Throughout ten days, traffic is closed for some part of Montréal downtown, because the two-thirds part of the all performances actually are free outside shows and are prevailed several stages at identical time. The Festival is held historically the last week of June and therefore the initial of July, the free outside shows starts around noon and that they last until midnight. The concerts are held in an exceedingly wide range of venues, from comparatively tiny jazz clubs to the big concert halls of the P.D.A. (Place des Arts) and after all the ten free outside stages.

Since the primary Festival de Jazz de Montreal, the event has options Jazz legends like Miles Davis, Sonny Rollins, Dave Brubeck, Ornette Coleman, Sara Vaughan, and many other legends. Also the Jazz legends from Montreal itself like Oscar Peterson, Leonard Cohen and Oliver Jones have conjointly been featured. The list is spectacular and every year nice acts take part.

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Montréal Jazz Festival

New Orleans Jazz and Heritage Festival

New Orleans is a very special festival you can attend; all, from the peoples to the atmosphere, the food, the clothes,..anything. Jazz was born in New Orleans and nowadays the festival is called the New Orleans Jazz & Heritage. Start in 1970 when Newport jazz Festival's behind the scene jazz impresario, George Wein, was employed to style and turn out a singular Festival for brand new Orleans. Wein’s concept of the Louisiana Heritage honest an oversized daytime honest together with a night concert series, convince be standard and it still work nowadays. Quint Davis and Allison Miner, 2 young New Orleans music enthusiasts, were brought aboard to figure on the event.

Today with twelve stages which each of them offering various genres/subgenres as; jazz, R&B, funk, gospel, African, Cajun, Blues, Rock, Latin and Caribbean music, it is rest assured that this festival it's indeed a distinctive Festival. If you attend the concert, bring back one among their limited-edition silkscreen posters, currently recognized joined of the foremost standard poster series within the world, it created its debut in 1972. The event has showcased most of the nice artists of latest Orleans and Louisiana and a large mixture of internationally renowned guests.

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New Orleans Jazz and Heritage Festival

Le Festival de Jazz de Montreux

Claude Nobs, a jazz enthusiast, started the very first of the Festival in 1967, on Lake Geneva’s shoreline, in Switzerland. It’s currently the foremost famous of all, it's featured Jazz greats and also different well established musician of different genres than jazz like; Eric Clapton and Prince.

Originally a pure Jazz Festival, the Montreux Jazz Festival unfolded within the Nineteen Seventies. throughout the 1971 Festival a fireplace broke at the Casino throughout a Frank Zappa concert. It impressed Deep Purple to jot down their famous song about it. About more than two hundred thousand music and particularly jazz lovers attend the Montreux Jazz Festival which held in June and it last a pair of weeks.

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Ella Fitzgerald live at 1969 Montreux Jazz Festival

Newport Jazz Festival

The Newport Jazz is that the grand daddy of North yank Jazz festivals. In 1954, a famous Impresario of jazz named Mr.George Wein, presented the primary Newport Jazz Festival. it absolutely was the primary annual jazz Festival in America, 11,000 folks showed up to the Newport Casino to listen to Bille vacation and different legendary performers. In 1955 Miles Davis created one among the foremost famous performances together with his solo on “Round midnight”, to be followed consequent year, in 1956 by the Duke Ellington band and their lengthy performance of “Diminuendo and Crescendo in Blues. Since, it's hosted to a number of the best acts in Jazz. Since them different historic performances are performed at the Festival.

Although the Newport Jazz Festival wasn't held per annum since then which it modified venues and town, it’s back in Newport, Rhode Island, a town that is famed for its spectacular coastal scenery and jaw dropping design. The Festival takes place three days in August.

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Newport Jazz Festival

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Duke Ellington, Jimmy Rushing, Louis Armstrong, Billy Strahorn with Photomodels at 1962 Newport Jazz Festival

Monterey Jazz Festival

Located 112 miles (180Km) from San Francisco, CA and held three days in September, this festival is the longest days of any other jazz festival like it in North America, welcomes you to an incredible location… Monterey CA. Since its starting in 1958, the three day event has perpetually been prevailed the bottom of central California's Monterey Fairgrounds. The seven Grounds Stages (3 outside and four indoor), scattered over the 20-acre oak studded Monterey County Fairgrounds, can options seventy eight events prevailed Friday Night, Saturday and Sunday. The outside stages embody the Arena/Jimmy Lyons Stage, the Garden Stage and therefore the Courtyard Stage. Indoor stages embody the Night Club/Bill Berry Stage, Dizzy's Den, the Jazz Theater and therefore the occasional House Gallery.

Beside performances of many Jazz legends, the Monterey Jazz Festival is over a music event has it conjointly features; an array of instructional program, panel discussions, workshops and exhibitions. there's conjointly place for searching and West Coast cuisine.

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Monterey Jazz Festival

Jazz in Marciac

Marciac is found 488 miles (777Km) from of Paris, within the south of France and solely eighty miles (128 Km) West of Toulouse. This event takes place at the top of July and therefore the starting of August. This Festival founded in 1978 by jean Louis Guilhaumon, welcomes over two hundred,000 guests a year and it’s one among the key Jazz festivals in Europe. throughout the two week, the medieval center of city hosts this fantastic free event below a large tent, capable of entertaining between five,000 and 6,000 people. The wide range of restaurants and bar options jazz musicians performing for his or her guests. Trumpet player Wynton Marsalis has been the ambassador or icon at giant of this very festival since 1991. In this town, at the place du Chevalier d’Antras, a statue has been erected for honouring him.

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View from stage at Jazz in Marciac

Copenhagen Jazz Festival

This fantastic event hosted within the Danish capital began in 1979. Sonny Rollins who played the primary year mention; "Jazz representsany kind of music. Everything is and is expressed through jazz and thru the medium improvisation, this is often the very best variety of having the ability to form music. Jazz is just like the days. nowadays it absolutely was cloudy, currently it's sunny. that is jazz. You never understand, what's happening,"

Ever since 250,000 folks come back every year to the current special Festival, it's held at the start of July per annum. The Copenhagen Jazz Festival is one among the Europe's biggest and most revered music events. The Festival presents jazz in distinctive surroundings its trademark. a number of their original venues embody an recent, East-German trawler, the historic Royal Danish Theatre, the country Tivoli Gardens and an recent printing plant, to call simply some.

It options the work of Danish Jazzmen together with international acts. Over 1,000 concerts are featured per annum. Many great legendary and new rising stars of (jazz) musicians have played at the Copenhagen Jazz Festival.

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View from backstage at Copenhagen Jazz Festival

Paris Jazz Festival

The Paris Jazz Festival is an annual summer event prevailed the grounds of the Parc Floral. The concerts occur each Saturday and Sunday throughout June and July. they're free, however there's a really cheap fee to enter the Park, the gigs begin around 3pm.

Even if the Festival is at an early stage in its career, it will options quality acts. Since the concerts run practically all summer, you must look it up if you're in Paris throughout that point. Paris Jazz Festival

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Ahmad jamal and Yusef Lateef at a promo flyer for 2012 Paris Jazz Festival

Vancouver International Jazz Festival

The Vancouver International Jazz Festival began in 1986, within the wake of Expo eighty six. because of the Coastal Jazz and Blues Society, it absolutely was solid from the beginning having a star studded lineup together with Jazz greats. Since then the Festival has become the highest event within the North West.

The 10 day event offers four hundred gigs held in major venues; The Orpheum, Ironworks, Vogue Theatre, SFU Woodward’s, the Venue, the Performance Works and therefore the Center, of those over a hundred thirty are free concerts and that they are held in open public spaces, like parks and public plazas, and also in selected indoor venues like concert hall. Over 460,000 folks comes every year to the Vancouver Jazz Festival

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Vancouver International Jazz Festival

Nice Jazz Festival

The first was in 1948, Nice Jazz Festival was started a decade earlier before the festival of Monterey. Nice Festival has been held non-stop ever since. The French Riviera’s five days event is that the initial international Jazz Festival value that name and it’s in all probability the flashiest and therefore the most prestigious. It embarked on with Louis Armstrong and his All Stars has the headliners. Since then the most important names in jazz have all played here.

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Nice Jazz Festival

The Nice Jazz Festivalwas held till 2011, within the Roman ruins of the Jardins de Cimiez. Since, then the celebrated event has been moved to the middle of city. There are a pair of venues at the Jardin Albert I, each are connected by walkways, admission includes each venues.


Bitter Jazz History in Russia

The first Russian jazz concert was staged in Moscow in 1922 by Valentin Parnakh’s Jazz Band. Soon this band was given an opportunity to perform onstage during a musical show directed by Vsevolod Meierhold. Benny Peyton’s New Orleans vogue jazz band and also the initial US touring jazz, like the band of Sam Wooding’s The Chocolate Kiddies, they toured and played some concerts around Moscow and Leningrad (the renamed St Petersburg) in 1926.

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Valentin Parnakh’s Jazz Band

These bands impressed the formation of native bands in Russia and also the Ukraine, notably the primary Concert Jazz Band of Leningrad pianist Leopold Teplisky, who had gained official support to go to the us to listen to jazz and collect scores.

After a amount of official disapproval swing bands emerged within the cities, typically taking part in at restaurants. The fox trot caught on within the late Twenties, as did the Charleston or tango. Factories provided free fox trot lessons for his or her staff. A Leningrad-based jazz orchestra led by classically trained Yakov Skoromovsky appeared in Soviet films, and a number of other bands recorded for the state record company.

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Leonid Utesov

In 1939, a politician guide to the organization of song and dance and jazz orchestras was printed. In Moscow, jazz bands played between shows at movie theaters. the highest Soviet jazz musicians of the Thirties were Leonid Utesov and Alexander Tsafsman. whereas Utesov custom-made foreign influences to national tastes and designs, Tsafsman adopted those influences to form a cosmopolitan, Westernized music (Starr 1990, 132). In 1937, several of Tsafsman’s band were transferred to the newly-formed State Jazz Orchestra of the USSR .

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Eddie Rosner

During World War II, Soviet jazz benefited from the alliance with the US. several jazz scores were sent to the USSR from the US and also the swing musician Eddie Rosner, a German-born refugee from Poland, created the Belarus state jazz orchestra the foremost admired within the country. However, during the era of Cold war, performing or publishing jazz music was prohibited. The Moscow authorities In 1949, confiscated musical instruments like saxophones and lots of musicians were arrested and sent to the gulags.


The Rock Explosion

At the end of the sixties, strengthened by his quintet's experiments, Miles Davis was ripe for bringing himself before rock and its immense audience.

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Miles Davis as a Rocker?

A fusion of country music and black rock and roll (derived from boogie), rock was created by white artists in the mid-fifties. Over the next decade, it adopted the effective rhythm sections of rhythm and blues and profited by carrying soul and other types of American music forward. At the same time it received support from new recording and production methods and made use of the electric instruments that had appeared with the urban blues.

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Jimi Hendrix onstage, Woodstock 1969

Instrumental performances became increasingly important not only with rock - leading to the appearance of 'guitar heroes' - but also with the transformation of musical forms. In the late sixties, 'rockers' invaded realms hitherto reserved for better-informed kinds of music, such as classical, jazz and certain types of traditional non-European music.

After this point rock could be played for extended periods, and huge sound systems were installed, making enormous outdoor concerts possible.


A Power Intact

Did jazz die in the eighties? Maybe it died years earlier, with Ornette Coleman, Gill Evans, Charlie Parker, or even, simply, the minute it left New Orleans. All this is surely debatable. But the only fact that matters is this: the explosion of black American music at the beginning of the century has turned the history of music upside down.

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Randy Brecker
 The immense musical river that set off from New Orleans has spawned numerous tributaries and today has arrived at its delta. Some of its large streams have got lost. In this decompartmentalized, cosmopolitan and multicoloured space, the standard-bearers of jazz have disappeared. They have left room for a permissiveness and a wild variety of individual styles, all carried by the impulse that was called swing in the thirties, which, in diversifying, has lost  none of its power.


Insect and Pygmies

With the use of technology, insect sounds and Pygmy choirs have been pirated and injected into recordings. One would be tempted to say that through these high-tech means jazz is rediscovering cultural appropriation - its first function.

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Chieli Minucci & Special EFX
Indeed, by the end of the eighties  there was more appropriation than ever before, in both acoustic and electric jazz. Jazz musicians have picked up and assimilated everything that has presented itself. This is what one might call a real fusion music.

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With Computer Software like this (DAW - Digital Audio Workstation), audio can be recorded, edited, manipulated as a normal as an analog/tape  recorder usually does or as crazy as somebodies creativity might imagine

The old standards and conventions of classical jazz are now only a part of a much large heritage - classical music, urban and rural traditions, academic music and music of the streets, rock and country, free jazz and various other sounds which is being looked at, borrowed from and generally shaken up.


The New Sounds Of Jazz

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'Old & Conventional' way to record (jazz) music;
for the sake of simplify, flexibility and lower cost, this old way of recording together in studio, record with analog machine are getting rarer

While the fans attached to their collections of 78s- who rebel the compact disc- remain an extreme case, it is true that the sound of jazz and the nature of the studio work have changed considerably. In the past, recordings were made in one or several takes, from which the best one would be chosen. Today multitrack recorders allow the most satisfying fragments from distinct takes to be edited together. Frequently, especially which electric fusion groups, the instrumentalists are recorded one after the other and apiece is put together without any of the different musicians even meeting in the studio. For all, including acoustic musicians, corrective work is done on the different tracks, for various reasons, even to arrive again at the artistic content of the work.

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Today 'studio';
with digital portable multitrack 'recorder' system like this, anybody can make music, record, manipulate and edit easily anywhere with high quality result
These operations have evolved considerably with the appearance of digital technology, which permits the sound to be manipulated by computers. Synthesizers, too, have benefited from this. New electronic devices abound: various keyboards, sequencers, rhythm boxes and electronic wind instruments - not to mention the 'sampler', which permits electronic verification of the characteristics of a sound in order either to reproduce it just as it is or to deform it.


Jazz For All

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In the past the jazz community could be depicted as one big family divided by domestic conflict, but by the end of the eighties that family seemed to be dissolving. If contemporary jazz musicians still return to the standards as an obligatory exercise in style or as the opportunity to express their devotion to tradition, the repertoire and practises are no longer homogeneous enough to allow an encounter between musicians of different generations.

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Pat Metheny

And jazz fans? Feeling rather lost, the lovers of early jazz seen great connection between all this and the colourful legend of New Orleans that brought them to the field in the first place. Then there are other specialists: collectors of West Coast music and those fondly reminiscent of the radical sixties and seventies.
All three share a protest against ECM productions, which they consider sterile and devoid of swing.

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John Scofield & Joe Lovano

25 Essential Jazz Recordings of the 1980's and 1990's(all styles)

Howard Alden/Dan Barrett, ABQ Salutes Buck Clayton (Concord Jazz)
Geri Allen, In The Year Of The Dragon (Verve)
Art Blakey, Keystone 3 (Concord Jazz)
Ruby Braff, A Sailboat In The Moonlight (Concord Jazz)
Michael Brecker, Michael Brecker (MCA/Impulse)
James Carter, Jurassic Classics (DIW/Columbia)
Kenny Garrett, Pursuance (Warner Bros.)
Jerry Gonzalez, Rhumba Para Monk (Sunnyside)
George Gruntz Concert Jazz Band, Fist Prize (Enja)
Roy Hargrove, Of Kindred Souls (Novus)
Joe Henderson, Lush Life (Verve)
Keith Jarrett, Bye Bye Blackbird (ECM)
Joe Lovano, Rush Hour (Blue Note)
Branford Marsalis, Trio Jeepy (Columbia)
Wynton Marsalis, Black Codes From The Underground (Columbia)
Wynton Marsalis, In This House, On This Morning (Columbia)
Jackie McLean, Dynasty (Triloka)
Pat Metheny, Letter From Home (Geffen)
Mingus Big Band, Nostalgia In Times Square (Dreyfus)
David Murray, Hope Scope (Black Saint)
Buell Neidlinger, Blue Chopsticks (K2B2)
James Newton, The African Flower (Blue Note)
Tito Puente, Goza Me Timbal (Concord Picante)
John Scofield, Hand Jive (Blue Note)
Yellowjackets, Four Corners (MCA)

Forces In Motion (Anthony Braxton) by Graham Lock (Da Capo Press, 1988)
Jazz - The 1980s Resurgence by Stuart Nicholson (Da Capo Press, 1990)
Outcats by Frances Davis (Oxford Univ. Press, 1990)
Rhythm-A-Ning by Gary Giddins (Oxford Univ. Press, 1985)
Talking Jazz by Ben Sidran (Da Capo Press, 1995)

The Reawakening Of Big Bands

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Carla Bley Big Band
Since the forties, big bands were increasingly the domain of white musicians.In the course of the sixties, Don Ellis outdistanced the metric preoccupations of jazz-rock. Carla Bley, with her compositions evoking the worlds of Charles Ives, Eric Satie and Kurt Weill, introduced a dimension of parody.

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Don Ellis Big Band
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Don Ellis
As for Gil Evans and George Russell, their invariably avant-garde writing led them to the dismantling of the structures of the big band, frequently shrinking the wind section, shifting the weight to the rhythm section, and adopting a freedom inherited from free jazz. Aura (1989) was the first record Miles Davis brought out with a large group since he recorded Quiet Night with Gill Evans in 1962.


Jazz In Joint Ownership

The different forms of improvised music - still conveniently collected under the label of jazz - were not, of course, the exclusive property of black musicians at this time. Numerous white musicians also appropriated the heritage of jazz: David Liebman and Richard Beirach, more than anyone else, continued to deepen the heritage of John Coltrane and Bill Evans; Keith Jarrett gave new life to old standards and to the traditional rhythm section in the vein of Bill Evans; Pat Metheny fed his super productions, tinged with pop, Brazilian and country music, with inspirations from Ornette Coleman and Wes Montgomery.

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David Liebman

Black producers, from Quincy Jones to Marcus Miller, have had an undeniable impact in the last decade. But another force since the sixties has been the white jazz musicians who have changed the direction of the sound as well, thanks to personalities such as Michael Brecker, David Sanborn and the guitarist Larry Carlton. These name are always mentioned in this context.

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Richard Beirach
Studio work has allowed jazz-rock to become open to a variety of other influences. Jazz has profited commercially from such borrowings.

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Marcus Miller; as Bass Player...

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... and as Producer
The popularity of Latin music represented a dual appeal; it fulfilled a public demand for upbeat music - evocative of sun and health- as well as responding to a youthful audience concerned with making the most of the positive aspects of its racial diversity.


From The Church To The Street

African-American jazz has always sought to maintain its footing in the sociological reality from which it was born.

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Quincy Jones

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Ray Charles and Quincy Jones

Such was the significance of Quincy Jones' Back on the Block, which came out in 1990. Taking stock of this century as it nears its end, Jones - Count Basie's former arranger and Michael Jackson's producer at that time - assembled a few of the great names of Black American music, from Ray Charles to Miles Davis, along with Ella Fitzgerald and Dizzy Gillespie.

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Ella Fitzgerald

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Geri Allen
Soul music and rap welcomed jazz, as if to remind it they grew up together in black churches and on the street. From the delicate neo-classical touch of the pianist Geri Allen to the fanfares of Lester Bowie (the Art Ensemble of Chicago's trumpet player), along with the saxophonists Kenny Garrett (like Geri Allen, trained in Detroit with the trumpet players Marcus Belgrave) or Gary Thomas (discovered while with Jack DeJohnette and Miles Davis) - the same concern with roots, the same attention to the latest developments of funk, and openness of spirit that reflected the lifestyle and choices of the sixties loft generation.

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Lester Bowie
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Marcus Belgrave

What do the following have it common: Wynton Marsalis in his three-pieces suit, the rap group 2 Live Crew with its obscenities, and the jazz that came forth in the sixties, mixing the acquisitions of free jazz with the certainties of bop?

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Kenny Garrett

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2 Live Crew
All belong to that same community - they were different reactions to the mounting economic difficulties, the marginalization of the most disenfranchised and the increase in the minority population in the eighties.


The Coming Of Neo-Bop

Historic Reissues Take Over The Recording Market

Now a well-recognized and thoroughly accepted form of music, jazz occupies a solid on music lovers' shelves, side by side with the classics.

 After 1983 - which was, significantly, the year the compact disc was introduced - record companies suddenly had the opportunity to reissue and anthologize the recorded heritage of jazz at a lower cost than ever before. Even with so much focus on looking back, however, in the eighties there were still some new developments, largely restricted to neo-bop and commercial productions.

The Coming Of Neo-Bop
With the brothers Branford and Wynton Marsalis as its stars, neo-bop was the field developed by an elite group of young musicians trained in the school of Art Blakey's Jazz Messengers. Heirs to hard bop, on which they put a new turn after listening to the music of the Miles Davis quintet of the sixties, these young musicians were regularly accused of being nothing but copies of earlier models.

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Branford Marsalis
Their astoundingly advanced technique and flawless performances deprived them, said some critics, of that element of risk that made their predecessors interesting.

These not-very-subtle observations ignored the importance of the traditional element in black American music. On top of that, one must remember that despite its lightning-fast evolution in just a few decades, jazz has always counted more followers than innovators.

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Wynton Marsalis
 The adoration for the 'small masters' who personalized Charlie Parker's message during the fifties is not so far removed from the admiration that the New York neo-boppers aroused thirty year later.


The State Of Jazz At The End Of The 70s; Jazz Bursts Into Pieces

In the seventies, jazz entered a neo classical phase. From Archie Shepp to Martial Solal, the rereading of yesterday's repertoire became common practise. At the same time, with Lee Konitz, Dexter Gordon or Art Pepper, a young public rediscovered the figures of free jazz. Increasingly numerous references to classical music drew from a wide range of sources.

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The radiant figures of Gil Evans (above, 1987, just before his death) leaves one hoping that jazz has a future other than the commercial.
Generally speaking, in the United States as in the rest of the world, young musicians claimed an encyclopedic culture in which classical, rock and world music went side by side. From jazz, musicians retained an impressive ability to absorb and appropriate outside elements.

Jazz Bursts into pieces 

Born at the start of the century, jazz must now take stock. are its newest incarnations indications of an art running out of breath or the sign of an expanding tradition? Those who ask this question ignore the fact that, around the world, different types of music outside the mainstream have been inspired by jazz: they constitute  fanfare for the century that is nearing its end.

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Yves Saint Laurent Perfume Advertisement

In some circles, the thirties are hot and jazz is fashionable. Its look is evoked in fashion design and black-and-white advertising photographs.
Its imagery pervades the movies, as the film industry exploits the stereotype of the jazz genius.
its impact is felt in rock and roll. In other words, the image and the legend of jazz still have power, even while today's improvised music tends to detach itself from it.


A Certain Need For Space & ECM Aesthetics

Jazz- rock continued to satisfy the youthful public well into the eighties, despite the fact that admirers, the press and even the musicians wearied of it. At the end of seventies, John McLaughlin and several others returned to the virtues of the acoustic guitar.

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John McLaughlin on acoustic guitar

Instrumental stereotypes and the somewhat vain virtuosity of jazz-rock guitar players were specifically called into question. The reaction came from the musicians themselves. An airier tone, a more limpid melody, a lighter orchestral context - these qualities were sought after as musicians listened to their elders: Wes Montgomery, Jim Hall and Bill Evans. But they wanted to mix their own culture - pop songs and country music- in with this. Guitar players John Abercrombie and Pat Metheny found the space their aspirations required at the record label ECM.

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Wes Montgomery

ECM Aesthetics

'Editions of Contemporary Music' : the identity crisis of jazz at the time was captured in the very name of this label, which did not even dare to name the music it presented. German Manfred Eicher, a former bassist, established ECM in 1969. He was first noticed for seeking to capture a sound reminiscent of the acoustics of a concert hall rather than that of smoky club. The technical enhancements ECM employed - precision of the stereo sound and reconstitution of the echo, and the crystal-clear renderings of instruments such as the piano, the vibraphone, and the electric and acoustic guitars - displeased old discophiles but responded to what young public concerned with a certain ease in listening (even at the expense of authenticity) was waiting for.

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John Abercrombie
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Pat Metheny

Later generations, disappointed by the crumbling of revolutionary ideologies and the exhaustion of the avant-garde, have focused on defending the environment and reviving the classics. ECM  and the innumerable labels that fell in step with it suggested a new 'ecology' of recording and concert giving. The return to the acoustic piano was magnified by the solo formula, until that point still  fairly exceptional in modern jazz. Solos by Keith Jarret or Paul Bley and duets by Chick Corea with Herbie Hancock or Gary Burton publicized a chamber music. The jazz musicians now became a concert artist, and jazz concert benefited by being listened to as seriously as recitals of classical music.

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Paul Bley

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Gary Burton


Fusion In The Studio

Little by little, the taste for musical crossbreeding gained acceptance. The term 'fusion' was given preference over that of jazz-rock, which was considered too restrictive.
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The Brecker Brothers, Randy amd Michael Brecker

The Brecker Brothers caused a furore. Strengthened by their experience with John Abercrombie and Billy Cobham in the group Dreams, they were able to adapt to any context what they inherited from Coltrane, juggling ternary and binary phrasing with complete ease. Randy, the trumpet player, and Michael, on sax, became unavoidable reference points for future instrumentalists, as much for their contribution to studio work as for their improvisations.

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David Sanborn

The alto player David Sanborn, equally sought after by the studios, practised a fusion just as joyful, bearing at the same time both the mark of his closeness with Stevie Wonder and the imprint of Gil Evans' band, in which he spent some time.